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Ramsar ConventionInternational Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar, Iran 1971). Coastal waters of particular importance can be designated as Ramsar sites but they do not normally exceed 6 m in depth. During the 1990s the convention was amended to broaden its application to embrace among others, the needs of fish with an associated move towards closer involvement with fishery management (Anon, 2001).
Rarity (species)"The current status of an organism which, by any combination of biological or physical factors, is restricted either in numbers or area to a level that is demonstrably less than the majority of other organisms of comparable taxonomic entities" (Gaston, 1994).
RecoverabilityThe ability of a habitat, community or individual (or individual colony) of species to redress damage sustained as a result of an external factor.
Red Data Book SpeciesA species listed in catalogues published by the IUCN or by national agencies, listing species which are rare, endangered or vulnerable to extinction globally or nationally.
Red list speciesA species identified as 'Extinct', 'Extinct in the wild', 'Critically endangered', 'Endangered', 'Vulnerable', 'Lower risk', 'Data deficient' or 'Not evaluated' according to criteria laid down in the IUCN Red List Categories (International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1994).
Regional Importance1) Species conservation - species which are unrecorded or recorded at only a few locations in similar physiographic situations in other parts of Britain. Species recorded in higher abundance in the site under consideration than in any other part of the region. Species which are at the geographical limits of their distribution might be included in this category. (Davies et al., 1990, based on Hiscock & Mitchell, 1989). Cf. 'regional importance: biotopes or areas' 'international importance', 'local importance', 'national importance' (biotopes or areas and species). 2) biotope and area conservation - Biotopes or areas which are widespread in similar situations but for which this is a good example in the coastal sector (q.v.) under consideration. Regional importance was, until 1995, defined for communities as being "Communities which are present in similar physiographic situations in Britain but which are outstandingly good examples of their type in the location under consideration, or are as good as examples of similar communities present elsewhere in Britain. Communities recorded at only a few locations in the same biogeographic region." (Davies et al., 1990, based on Hiscock & Mitchell, 1989). (Cf. 'regional importance: species', 'international importance', 'local importance', 'national importance' (biotopes or areas and species)).
Regulation (EU)Legislation that has immediate, equal and binding effect throughout all member states. The method of implementing the legislation is not left to each member state to decide, as with Directives, but is specified in the Regulation. Any state that does not implement a Regulation can be reported to the Court of Justice, most probably by the Commission (EC), and fined (Anon, 2001).
Regulation 33Paragraph in the UK Conservation Regulations that requires nature conservation bodies to advise relevant authorities as to the conservation objectives for a European marine site and notify them of any operations that may cause a deterioration to the habitat or disturbance of species for which the site has been selected (Anon, 2001).
Regulation 34Paragraph in the UK Conservation Regulations that allows the relevant authority to establish a (single) management scheme for the protection of each European marine site (Anon, 2001).
Relevant authorityA body that has functions in relation to land or waters within or adjacent to a marine area or European marine site (Defra, 2007).
Renewable energyAny naturally occurring, theoretically inexhaustible source of energy, as biomass, solar, wind, tidal, wave, and hydroelectric power, that is not derived from fossil or nuclear fuel.
RepresentativenessIn conservation assessment -typical of a feature, habitat or assemblage of species. Representative examples are identified from the range of natural or semi-natural habitats and associated communities (biotopes) within a biogeographically distinct area or the boundaries of a national territory.
ResilienceThe ability of an ecosystem to return to its original state after being disturbed (from Makins, 1991).
ResistanceThe degree to which a variable is changed following perturbation (Pimm, 1984). The tendency to withstand being perturbed from the equilibrium (Connell & Sousa, 1983).
Richness (species)The number of species in a community, habitat or sample.


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